Adult & Child Psychological Wellness Clinic
Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
For Assessment and Treatment by Child Psychiatrist
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)
The essential symptoms of ADHD are inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. It is one of the most common conditions in children and adolescents. Affected individuals frequently present with disruptive behaviours in school and at home. It is associated with deteriorating academic results.
It can also affect adults, especially when their symptoms are not identified when they were younger or that their condition persisted into adulthood. Males are more commonly affected than females. Symptoms
Symptoms of inattention:
- distractible from the task
- difficulty organizing tasks
- difficulty completing their assignments/work and etc.
Symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity:
- being fidgety/leaving the seat when required to sit down
- excessively talkative
- interrupts/intrudes on others and etc.
Symptoms of ADHD can be associated with learning disabilities, oppositional defiant behaviour, mood-anxiety problems, family conflicts etc.
In adults with persistent ADHD symptoms, they may present with difficulties handling their work requirements. There may be impairment in their “executive functioning” which refers to the ability to plan ahead, evaluate the past, start and finish a task, and to manage time effectively.
Causes of ADHD:
The exact causes are generally unknown. Possible causes include genetics, brain injuries, adverse environmental exposures and etc.
Treatment of ADHD by Child Psychiatrist:
The Child Psychiatrist will discuss with you the various effective treatments for ADHD. It is possible that with treatment, improvements can occur in the areas of disruptive behaviour, individual’s academic achievements and inter-personal relationships.
Generally, ADHD is treated with medication, behavioural interventions, parent management training (for child/adolescent) and the school’s supportive involvement.
Effective medications are methylphenidate (e.g. Ritalin, Concerta), atomoxetine (e.g. Strattera) and etc.
Behavioural interventions with a psychologist/therapist may include teaching the individual skills on how to manage their studies /work-requirements using specific structures despite the presence of their inattention/hyperactivity. For a child/adolescent, this is closely coupled with parent management training to help parents learn how to manage their children with problems of ADHD. S
School’s supportive involvement refers to how school can better support and manage the child/adolescent such as class room strategies and with special accommodations during examinations.
Dietary modifications may or may not be useful in the management of ADHD.